Pregnancy: Contraindicated in pregnancy.
Lactation: Caution advised or effect undetermined.
Contraindications: Antimuscarinics are contra-indicated in myasthenia gravis (but may be used to decrease muscarinic side-effects of anticholinesterases), paralytic ileus, pyloric stenosis, toxic megacolon, and prostatic enlargement. Coma, stupor, iodine sensitivity.
Precautions: Antimuscarinics should be used with caution in Down's syndrome, in children and in the elderly; they should also be used with caution in gastro-esophageal reflux disease, diarrhoea, ulcerative colitis, autonomic neuropathy, acute myocardial infarction, hypertension, conditions characterized by tachycardia (including hyperthyroidism, cardiac insufficiency, cardiac surgery), pyrexia, and in individuals susceptible to angle-closure glaucoma.
Peptic ulcer and GI disorders, complicated by nervous or emotional factors.
Amantadine, atenolol, digoxin, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants.
Constipation, transient bradycardia (followed by tachycardia, palpitation and arrhythmias), reduced bronchial secretions, urinary urgency and retention, dilatation of the pupils with loss of accommodation, photophobia, dry mouth, flushing and dryness of the skin. Side-effects that occur occasionally include confusion (particularly in the elderly), nausea, vomiting, and giddiness. Very rarely, angle-closure glaucoma may occur.